Virtual Reality

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Introduction

Virtual Reality or VR is a computer-simulated artificial world that can mimic the physical features of the environments in real life and in fantasy. In VR, all of our senses are fooled, temporarily, into believing that this artificial environment is real. The goal of a true VR experience is to create presence, the feeling of physically being somewhere else, being in another reality.

Virtual Reality is an interactive and immersive medium that can be utilized to create unique experiences that are unattainable elsewhere. VR has the power to transform games, films and other forms of media. Some enthusiasts call VR the "ultimate input/output device" or the "last medium" because any subsequent medium can be created within VR, using only software.

While Augmented Reality enhances the real world with digital content, Virtual Reality completely replaces the real world with a virtual one, creating a brand new digital environment for the users to explore.

Hardware Technologies

Head-mounted Display

VR is currently created by head-mounted displays (HMDs) such as the Oculus Rift. HMDs utilize stereoscopic displays and specialized lenses along with motion tracking hardware to give the illusion that the user is physically inside the virtual world.

To create the illusion of depth, a display is placed very close to the users' eyes, covering their entire field of view. Two images that are very similar but have different perspectives are channeled into each eye to create parallax, the visual phenomenon where our brains perceive depth based on the difference in the apparent position of objects.

Specialized lenses are placed between the display and our eyes. There lenses allow our eyes to focus on the images on the display, even though the display is only a few inches in front of our faces. Without lenses, our entire VR world would become blurry because human eyes have trouble focusing on things that are very close.[1]

The headset tracks the movement of your head and changes the images shown on the display based on it. This process creates the sensation that users are located within the virtual environment. Users of these devices are not only able to experience the computer-simulated environments but also interact with them. Various input methods, from the traditional game controllers and keyboards to the futuristic hand gestures and voice commands, are available or under development.

Motion Tracking

HMD tracks the movement of your head and updates the rendered scene based on its orientation and location. This process is similar to how we look around in real life. There are 2 types of tracking: rotational tracking and positional.

Rotational tracking tracks the 3 rotational movements: pitch, yaw, and roll. It is performed by IMUs such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers.

Positional tracking tracks the 3 translational movements: forward/back, up/down and left/right. Positional tracking is usually more difficult than rotational tracking and is accomplished through different Types and Systems.

Motion tracking is not only used to track your head in HMDs but also used to track your hands and rest of your body through various input devices.

Input Devices

Input Devices allow the users to influence and manipulate the virtual realm they are in. These devices include traditional input methods such as gamepad, mouse and keyboard and novel devices that track the position and orientation of your hands, fingers, feet and other body parts.

Platforms

Oculus Rift (Platform)

SteamVR

PlayStation VR

OpenVR

Daydream

OSVR

WebVR

Devices

See also: Virtual Reality Devices
DevicesRequiresDisplayResolutionRefresh RateField of ViewTrackingRotational TrackingPositional TrackingUpdate RateLatencyInputConnectivity
ANTVRPC
Xbox One
PlayStation 4
Smartphone
Aspherical lens1920 x 1080100° diagonal3DOFGyroscope
Magnetometer
Accelerometer
Transformable ControllerU2B (USB-2.4GHz and Bluetooth) module
Daydream ViewDaydream Ready Phones5 / 5.5 inch AMOLED (Pixel / Pixel XL)1920 x 1080 / 2560 x 1440 (Pixel / Pixel XL)60 Hz Low-persistence90° (nominal)3DOFAccelerator
Gyrometer
Proximity
NoneRotational: 1000 Hz
High accuracy
Motion to Photon: Less than 20 msDaydream Controller
FOVEPC5.8 inch low persistence OLED2560 x 144060 - 90 Hz100°Eye TrackingIMUTheir own systemEye Tracking: 120 FPSUSB 3.0
Display port
3.5mm headphone port
Figment VRDepends on the smartphoneDepends on the smartphone3DOFIMUs in SmartphoneNone
Google CardboardSmartphoneDepends on the smartphoneDepends on the smartphone3DOFIMUs in SmartphoneNone
HTC VivePCDual Panel2160 x 1200 (1080 x 1200 per eye)90 Hz110° (diagonal)6DOFGyroscope
Accelerometer
Laser Position Sensor
Base StationsRotational: 1000Hz
Positional: 60Hz
??Controllers in both hands2 HDMI ports
2 USB ports
1 headphone jack
HTC Vive Developer EditionsPCDual Panel2160 x 1200
1080 x 1200 per eye
90 Hz110° (diagonal)6DOFGyroscope
Accelerometer
Laser Position Sensor
Base Stations????Controllers in both hands2 HDMI ports
2 USB ports
1 headphone jack
Impression PiSmartphoneDepends on smartphoneDepends on the smartphone6 DOFIMU BoardIMU Board
Infared Cameras?
IR Projector?
LG 360 VRLG G51.88" IPS LCD x 2 EA
920 x 720 per Eye
639 ppi Real RGB
960x720 pixels at 693ppi (per eye)
OSVR HDK1PC5.5 inch LCD (1.0)
5.5 inch low-persistence OLED (1.1 - 1.3)
1920 x 1080
960 x 1080 per eye
60 Hz (1.0 - 1.2)
120 Hz (1.3)
100° (nominal)
90° (H and V)
3DOF
6DOF
Gyroscope
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
IR-LED faceplate and External Infrared CameraPositional: 100 Hz
Rotational: 400Hz
??Leap Motion VR
Gamepads
Mouse and Keyboard
1 external and 2 internal USB 3.0 ports
OSVR HDK2PC5.5 inch? OLED2160 x 1200 (1080 x 1200 per eye)90 Hz???3DOF
6DOF
Gyroscope
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
???Rotational: 400Hz
Positional: 100 Hz
????????
Oculus RiftPCDual OLED Panels2160 x 1200 (1080 x 1200 per eye)90 Hz110° (diagonal)6DOFGyroscope
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
Oculus SensorRotational: 1000Hz
Positional: 60Hz
LowXbox One controller
Oculus Touch
Oculus Remote
HDMI
USB
Oculus Rift DK1PC7 inch LCD1280 x 800
640 x 800 per eye
60 Hz110° (Nominal)3DOFGyroscope
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
NoneRotational: 1000 HzTracking: 2ms
End-to-end: 50-60ms
Oculus Rift DK2PC5.7 inch OLED (PenTile)1920 x 1080
960 x 1080 per eye
75 Hz
72 Hz
60 Hz
100° (nominal)6DOFGyroscope
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
Separate Camera
Near Infrared CMOS Sensor
Rotational: 1000 Hz
Positional: 60 Hz
~30 msUSB
HDMI
Oculus Santa Cruz Prototype
Phab2 Pro6.4-inch Quad HD (2560x1440) IPS display1440 x 2560 pixels
PlayStation VRPlayStation 45.7 inch OLED1920 x 1080
960 x 1080 per eye
120 Hz
90 Hz
100°6DOFAccelerometer
Gyroscope
PlayStation Camera?Less than 18msDualShock 4 Wireless Controller
PlayStation Move Motion Controller
PlayStation VR Aim
HDMI
USB
Samsung Gear VRAll Samsung Smartphones 2015 and newer5.7 / 5.1 inch Super AMOLED (RGBG PenTile)2560 x 1440
1280 x 1440 per eye
60 Hz Low-persistence96° (nominal)3DOFAccelerator
Gyrometer
Proximity
NoneRotational: 1000 Hz
High accuracy
Motion to Photon: Less than 20 msBack Button
Volume Key
Touchpad
Focus adjustment wheel
MicroUSB to the smartphone
Samsung Gear VR Innovator EditionGalaxy Note 4
Galaxy S6
Galaxy S6 Edge
5.7 / 5.1 inch Super AMOLED (RGBG PenTile)2560 x 1440
1280 x 1440 per eye
60 Hz Low-persistence96° (nominal)3DOFAccelerator
Gyroscope
Magnetometer
NoneRotational: 1000 Hz
High accuracy
Motion to Photon: Less than 20 msTouch Pad
Back Button
Volume Key
MicroUSB to the smartphone
StarVRPCDual 5.5" LCD Quad HD Displays5120 x 1440 (2560 x 1440 per eye)210° (horizontal)
130° (vertical)
6DOFGyroscope
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
External optical sensor with fiducial markers
Sulon QPCOLED2560x1440 pixelsDual noise-suppressing embedded microphones
Gamepads
Controllers compatible with Windows 10
Mouse and Keyboard
Bluetooth 4.0
Wi-Fi 802.11ac
Wearality SkySmartphoneDepends on smartphoneDepends on smartphone150°3DOFIMUs in SmartphoneNone
  • To make changes to the table, please edit the the infobox of the corresponding device. See Template:Device Infobox for reference.

Apps

VR Apps

Use Cases

See also: Virtual Reality Use Cases
Use Case Examples
3D modeling / design Medium, Tilt Brush, Gravity Sketch
Aerial Photography Skywand
Anatomy VR Human Anatomy
Animal testing Janelia Research Campus
Architecture IrisVR, Arch Virtual, SmartVizX
Astronomy dSky Celestrion
Automotive design WorldViz
Big data visualisation Masters of Pie, Envelop VR, Virtualitics
Cinema Jaunt VR
Circus Two Bit Circus
Cognitive training Cerevrum
Computer-aided design VRED
Construction IDEAbuilder
Courtroom Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Zurich
Desktop Virtual Desktop, BigScreen, Multiscreens, Mure VR, Envelop VR
Ecommerce Trillenium
Education Unimersiv, Lecture VR, IndyLab VR
Exercise VirZoom
Eye examination EyeNetra
Finance QuantVR
Flying drones FLYBi, Ghost 2.0
Gaming Many
Industrial training EON Reality, VR Mobile Crane Simulator
Interior design Planner VR
Journalism Emblematicgroup
Language learning House of Languages
Manufacturing Virtalis
Marketing 10x Army
Mental health CleVR
Meditation Zen Zone, Guided Meditation VR
Pain relief DeepStream VR
Public speaking SpeechCenter
Psychedelics
Physical rehabilitation VRecover
Recruitment Wade & Wendy
Simulation
Sports spectating NextVR, Livelike
Sports training STRIVR Labs
Social networking AltspaceVR, High Fidelity, Oculus Social
Surgery training Surgical Theater
Surgical imaging Block Coronary Artery Surgery
Surveillance
Travel
Vision treatment Vivid Vision

History

Timeline

References

  1. http://doc-ok.org/?p=1360